Critera not



Keywords: critera not
Description: When constructing a query or a filter, you need to tell Access what to look for in each field. You do this by defining criteria - typing something (an "expression") into the Criteria cell

When constructing a query or a filter, you need to tell Access what to look for in each field. You do this by defining criteria - typing something (an "expression") into the Criteria cell of the query or filter grid. If you do not define any criteria for a particular field, Access assumes that you are applying no constraints and will display everything it has. This means that you only have to define criteria for those fields you are interested in.

Here are some examples of the more common types of criteria. Often Access will complete the expression so that you need only type the text you want to match. However, sometimes Access has a choice so you should always check that what Access has written is the same as you intended. If what you type doesn't make sense to Access, you will see an error message.

The list of examples below is not exhaustive. Try using combinations of different expressions and see what you get. Also, don't immediately assume that you have made a mistake if you get no records when you run the query or filter. It means that Access can't find anything to match your criteria. That may be because you've asked for something impossible, but it could equally mean that your criteria were perfectly OK but there simply aren't any matching records.

When you enter text into the criteria cell your text should be enclosed in quotes ("") to distinguish it from other expressions and operators that you may need to add.

To match a word or phrase simply type the text you want to match. The query will find all the records that match the text exactly. Access will add the quote marks at each end. It is only necessary to enter the quotes yourself if you type text that might confuse the query. For example you may want to type a phrase that contains the words "and" or "or". Access would normally interpret these words as instructions. You can manually insert the quote marks at each end of the phrase to make sure the criterion means what you intend it to. This example will display all the records that contain the entry London in the Town field.

To match one of two or more words or phrases. type the text you want to match separated by the word "or ". The query will find all the records that match any of the words or phrases. Enter quote marks yourself if you think the text might confuse the query. This example will display all the records that contain either London or Paris in the Town field.

To match one of several words or phrases. you can type each word or phrase in a new row moving down the column. This gives the same result as using "or " but has the advantage that your criteria might be easier to read. This example will display all the records that contain the entry London. Paris or Amsterdam in the Town field. Note: If this method is combined with criteria for other fields those criteria must be repeated for each row.

To exclude a word or phrase. use the expression "Not " followed by the word of phrase you want to exclude (enclosed in quotes). This example will display records that contain anything other than London in the Town field.

To exclude a list of words or phrases from the search use the same method as for matching from a list but add the expression "Not " at the beginning. This example will display all records that contain anything other than UK or USA or France in the Country field.

A wildcard is a special character that can stand for either a single character or a string of text. Wildcards are useful when you want the query to look for a range of different possible values, and also when you are not certain exactly what you are looking for but can give the query some clues to work with.

The two wildcards we commonly use are the asterisk or star (* ) and the question mark (? ).The asterisk (* ) represents any string of text from nothing up to an entire paragraph or more. The question mark (? ) represents a single character only (although you could use, for example, two question marks to represent two unknown characters).

  • Yor* would find York. Yorkshire and Yorktown but not New York .
  • Mar? would find Mark but not Mario. Martin or Omar .
  • F*d would find Fred and Ferdinand but not Frederick .

To match text starting with a particular letter or string type the letter or string of text followed by an asterisk. Access will add the expression "Like " and place quotes around your typing. This example will display all records that have an entry starting with S in the Company field.

To match text ending with a particular letter or string type an asterisk followed by a letter or string of text. This example will display all records that have an entry ending with Plc in the Company field.

To match text starting with letters within a certain range you must type the entire expression as shown (this one is too complicated for Access to work out what you want. This example will display all the records with entries starting with the letters A - D in the Company field.

You can often get the same results by using mathematical operators such as greater than (> ) and less than (< ). These are normally used for specifying numbers and dates but can also be used for text.

  • <"N" would find all entries beginning with a letter lower than the letter N in the alphabet. In other words, all entries starting with the letters A - M .
  • >"F" And <"H" would find all entries beginning with the letters F and G .

When working with numbers we normally use the mathematical operators to define the range of numbers from which we want to select.

  • <X finds values less than X.
  • >X finds vales greater than X
  • >=X finds values greater than or equal to X
  • <>X finds vales not equal to X

It is important that your field type is correctly defined as a Number field for numerical queries to work properly. Here are some examples…

To match a number simply type the number that you want the query to find. This example will display the record(s) with the entry 385 in the CustomerNumber field.

To find values less than a certain number type a less than sign (<) followed by the number. This example will display all records with an entry less than 1000 in the CustomerNumber field.

To find values in a range of numbers type the expression shown where X and Y represent the numbers at opposite ends of the range. This example will display all records with entries falling within the range 500-700 in the CustomerNumber field.

Dates behave the same way as numbers, so you can use some of the same techniques when constructing your date query or filter. Remember, for dates to be treated properly by Access it is important that your field type has been correctly defined as a Date/Time field. It doesn't matter how you enter the date, as long as you use a recognised format. The date will be displayed in the resulting dynaset in whatever format you chose when you created the table.

When you enter a date in the criteria cell you can use any standard date format, but each date must be enclosed by hash marks (#).

  • <#1/1/98# finds dates earlier than 1 January 1998
  • =#27-Sep-50# finds dates equal to 27 September 1950
  • Between #5/7/98# And #10/7/98# finds dates no earlier than 5 July 1998 and no later than 10 July 1998

To match a particular date type the date enclosed by hash marks (#). This example will display all the records with entries for 27 September 1998 in the Invoice Date field.




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