Phureja potatoes



Keywords: phureja potatoes
Description: This fascinating, readable volume is filled with enticing, detailed information about more than 30 different Incan crops that promise to follow the potato's lead and become important contributors to the world's food supply. Some of these overlooked foods offer special advantages for developing nations, such as high nutritional quality and excellent yields. Many are adaptable to areas of the United States. Lost Crops of the Incas includes vivid color photographs of many of the crops and describes the authors' experiences in growing, tasting, and preparing them in different ways. This book is for the gourmet and gourmand alike, as well as gardeners, botanists, farmers, and agricultural specialists in developing countries.

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Potatoes During the approximately 8,000 years that potatoes have been cultivated in the Andes, farmers have selected types to meet their particular local needs and preferences, as well as to thrive in the myriad m

croenvironments scattered throughout South Americans 4,000- km-long mountainous backbone. This vast and long-standing selection process has resulted in thousands of distinct types, and Andean Indians sometimes grow up to 200 different kinds of potatoes in a single field. Most of these Andean potatoes (various Solanum species) are quite unlike what people elsewhere take to be "normal" for a potato. They can have skin and flesh that is often brilliantly colored (sometimes bright yellow or deep purple). Some have eye-catching shapes, often being long, thin, and wrinkled. And most have a rich potato flavor and a high nutritional quality. These "odd" potatoes deserve much more recognition. Many have appealing culinary qualities and could fill specialty niches in the huge worldwide potato industry. For example, they can be less watery than common potatoes or have nutlike tastes and crisp textures. Moreover, most of these little-known potatoes are adapted to marginal growing environments and possess considerable resistance to various trouble- some diseases, insects, and nematodes, as well as frost. There has never been a better time to investigate these lesser-known crops. New markets for small or unusual potatoes are springing up. In North America, for instance, the food industry is avidly exploiting miniature vegetables of all kinds, and demand is increasing for small and colorful potatoes in particular.) 2 ' In 1986, for example, the state of Maine sold almost 400,000 kg of potatoes, ranging in size from golf balls to billiard balls. The wholesale price was about one-third higher than for normal-sized potatoes. Sold as gourmet delights, these "Baby Maines" are packaged in designer boxes. Sales have climbed each year since the program began in 1983. 2 An entrepreneur in California has had remarkable success selling golden and purple- colored potatoes as premium specialty vegetables from coast to coast. Her marketing is based solely on their color. 93

94 LOST CROPS OF THE INCAS In addition, it is important that these potatoes be assessed and used because most of these species are becoming rare in the Andes phased out in favor of modern varieties, which have undergone vastly more agronomic development. Indeed, some are so close to extinction that it is vital to focus scientific attention on them before they are lost. However, it should not be assumed that all one needs to do is to gather these Andean potatoes and distribute them to the world. On the contrary, they have grave limitations. Many are grown only on high mountain slopes and may be restricted to such environments. Most seem to be less vigorous and to yield fewer and smaller tubers than modern commercial potatoes, especially when grown under commercial conditions. Most have deep eyes and irregular shapes that make them harder to process and handle in bulk than regular potatoes. Also, many, if not most, have strict daylength requirements and currently yield poorly in temperate zones because they need short days to induce tuberization. Despite some apparent geographic and daylength limitations, these potatoes have potential for commercial success; the technical con- straints to their wider adoption seem likely to be overcome through diligence, conventional breeding and tissue-culture techniques, and the improved disease-indexing techniques now available. They could perhaps usher in a new era in potato cultivation. Even the low yield may not be inherent. Under the marginal conditions where they now grow, many of these native potatoes are not reaching their potential because of soil infertility, inadequate moisture, poor management, soil nematodes, viruses, and the poor quality of "seed" available.3 SPECIES Many of the little-known potatoes of the Andes belong to different species from the common potato elsewhere, but one is its ancestral form. This one and seven others are described below.4 Pitiquina. Widely considered the most primitive of the domesti- cated potatoes, this species (Solanum stenotomumS) produces tubers that are long; cylindrical; knobbly; red, black, or white; and small 3 Information from J.S. Niederhauser, who reports that in the highlands of Bolivia, andigena varieties (see later) have yielded the equivalent of 15-20 tons per hectare when there was a source of good seed, plenty of fertilizer, and control of nematodes, insects, and weeds. 4 The scientific names used in this chapter are for identification purposes only. The taxonomy of the potato is complicated in the extreme. No endorsement of one set of claims over another is intended or implied.

. Selling limena potatoes on the streets of Lima. In the homeland of the potato, where there are literally hundreds of types to choose from, limena potatoes are among the most popular because of their flavor. The larger? more watery types that are best known elsewhere are among the least popular. (Z. Huaman) with deep eyes. Some are spiral in shape. They have a good, nutty flavor and unusually high amounts of protein and vitamin C. This diploid (see page 102) is grown intermixed with common potatoes in traditional fields. Bolivian farmers, for instance, often plant a few rows of "collyu papa," a pitiquina (pronounced pee-tee-keen-ye) variety, for their own consumption, and andigena varieties (see below) for the market. The plant is becoming rare and is not now grown outside the Andes. Some strains are fairly frost resistant. It produces fertile seed. The tubers require a dormant period before they will sprout. Typically, they are stored 4-5 months between crops. Limena. Known in the Andes as limena (pronounced lie-main-ye) or papa amarilla ("yellow potato"), this species (Solanum goniocalyx) produces a potato with deep-yellow flesh of exceptional flavor. It is fried and sold as a culinary specialty in the streets of Lima, Peru, for 5 Thought to be the original progenitor, from which all other cultivated potatoes sprang. It is extremely close to such wild species as Solanum leptophyes and S. canasense, which are Andean weeds commonly found in vacant fields and along roadsides. It may have arisen from them by selection.




Photogallery Phureja potatoes:


A genetic map ofSolanum phureja clone 1.22 constructed using RFLP ...


Marker-assisted sampling of the cultivated Andean potato Solanum ...


Solanum phureja genes are expressed in the leaves and tubers of ...


Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Solanum phureja - Springer


Characterisation of resistance to potato leafroll virus ...


Potato germplasm development for warm climates: genetic ...


Comparison of diploid and tetraploid potato families derived from ...


Extensive simple sequence repeat genotyping of potato landraces suppo


Recurrent maternal half-sib selection improves resistance to ...


Transmission of resistance to common scab from the diploid to the ...


Tracking Foliar Symptoms Caused by Tuber-Borne Potato Yellow Vein ...


Production of potato monohaploids (2n=x=12) through prickle ...


Effect of genotype, explant, subculture interval and environmental ...


Production of haploids of potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp ...


Germplasm Release: Saikai 35, a Male and Female Fertile Breeding ...


Introgression of cold (4 C) chipping from 2x (2 endosperm balance ...


QTL analysis of late blight resistance in a diploid potato family ...


Transmission of bacterial wilt resistance by First Division ...


Genetic analysis of the cultivated potato Solanum tuberosum L ...


Inheritance of early blight resistance from open-pollinated 4-2 ...