Mtor as



Keywords: p70s6k, akt1, erk2, pik3r1, mtor, erk7, gsk3a, erk3, gsk3b, erk5, p70s6kb, lkb1, ppar-gamma, lrp1, erk1, g-alpha(q), pten, pik3cb, tsc2, pik3cg, pik3c2b, dvl2, arnt, sorl1, fzd5, pik3c2a, lrp1b, tsc1, irs1, p90rsk, akt3, akt2, pkca, rsk3, rsk2, pik3r4, e
Description: Expert-reviewed pathway providing a current overview of mTOR Signaling.

The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an atypical serine/threonine kinase that is present in two distinct complexes. The first, mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), is composed of mTOR, Raptor, GβL, and DEPTOR and is inhibited by rapamycin. It is a master growth regulator that senses and integrates diverse nutritional and environmental cues, including growth factors, energy levels, cellular stress, and amino acids. It couples these signals to the promotion of cellular growth by phosphorylating substrates that potentiate anabolic processes such as mRNA translation and lipid synthesis, or limit catabolic processes such as autophagy. The small GTPase Rheb, in its GTP-bound state, is a necessary and potent stimulator of mTORC1 kinase activity, which is negatively regulated by its GAP, the tuberous sclerosis heterodimer TSC1/2. Most upstream inputs are funneled through Akt and TSC1/2 to regulate the nucleotide-loading state of Rheb. In contrast, amino acids signal to mTORC1 independently of the PI3K/Akt axis to promote the translocation of mTORC1 to the lysosomal surface where it can become activated upon contact with Rheb. This process is mediated by the coordinated actions of multiple complexes, notably the v-ATPase, Ragulator, the Rag GTPases, and GATOR1/2. The second complex, mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), is composed of mTOR, Rictor, GβL, Sin1, PRR5/Protor-1, and DEPTOR. mTORC2 promotes cellular survival by activating Akt, regulates cytoskeletal dynamics by activating PKCα, and controls ion transport and growth via SGK1 phosphorylation. Aberrant mTOR signaling is involved in many disease states including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes.






Photogallery Mtor as:


Metabolites | Free Full-Text | Mathematical Modelling of Metabolic ...


Schematic representation of the mTOR signaling pathway. : Chemical ...


Cancers | Free Full-Text | The Role of PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling in ...


Figure 4 : mTOR: from growth signal integration to cancer ...


mTOR-independent autophagy induction pathways. : Chemical ...


Frontiers | Nutrient Sensing via mTOR in T Cells Maintains a ...


mTOR Signaling in Regulatory T Cell Differentiation and Expansion


Frontiers | Mechanisms regulating neuronal excitability and ...


The many faces of mTOR and rapamycin | AGINGSCIENCES  Anti-Aging ...


Nutrients | Free Full-Text | The Role of Mechanistic Target of ...


Bateup Lab


Role of the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Signalling ...


mTOR_Pathway_680.gif


mTOR is a key modulator of ageing and age-related disease : Nature ...


Nutrients | Free Full-Text | The Role of Mechanistic Target of ...


Nutrient signaling to mTOR and cell growth: Trends in Biochemical ...


Inhibiting the mTOR Pathway as an Anti-Cancer Strategy | GRACE ...


mTOR-pathway | Novus Biologicals