Unitised with profits fund
Keywords: unitised with profits fund
Description: Need a long-term investment that is managed for you and has life assurance included? A with-profits fund could be what you’re looking for
If you save regularly or invest a lump sum using a life insurance policy, you might choose to invest in a with-profits fund. These aim to give you a return linked to the stock market but with fewer ups and downs than investing directly in shares. However, they are complex and are not as popular a form of investing as they used to be.
- An initial sum assured (guaranteed minimum sum) is increased by the addition of annual bonuses and a terminal bonus.
- The size of bonuses depends on fund performance, the costs of the insurance business, and the need to smooth bonuses between good and poor years.
- The trend has been for bonus rates to fall as the result of difficult market conditions.
- Although market value reductions can be applied this would not normally be the case. Instead surrender penalties would usually apply if the policy was terminated early with no reductions applied on maturity.
- A unitised fund is split into units – when you pay into it you buy a certain number of units at the current price.
- Unit prices increase in line with bonuses declared, and do not fall. Or if additional units have been added, these are not taken away (but market value reductions can be applied).
- There may be surrender penalties if you decide to take your cash early.
- Bonuses are handled differently depending on the type of unitised with-profit fund you have.
- Fixed price – the price of the unit never changes so bonuses are paid as extra units to your policy.
- Variable price – bonuses are given as an increase in the unit price, so each unit you hold is worth more.
- annual bonuses. also called regular or revisionary bonuses
- final bonus. also called the terminal bonus
- Once it’s been added, an annual bonus can’t be taken away – even if the fund performs poorly in future – as long as you continue to meet the terms of your policy.
- A final bonus may be added at the end of your policy. Whether you get one and how big it is depends on how well the fund does.
- In good years, the fund manager can choose to keep some of the profits to help cover losses in bad years. This is called smoothing. This means that if there are long stretches without a profit, you may get low annual and final bonuses – or even no bonuses at all.
The insurance company can make a Market Value Reduction to your policy if you surrender early, or in times of adverse investment conditions like a stock market crash. If you leave a policy early, this reduction may claw back a large part – or even all – of any bonuses that have previously been added. If you’re thinking of ending a with-profits policy early, read our guide Ending your with-profits policy early .
A fund needs to keep enough money on hand to meet its expenses, run the business and to pay what it owes to policyholders. But over time, some funds build up far more than they need – usually through profits that were held back to cover losses that never happened. This extra value is called the inherited estate .
The insurance company can use the extra money in one of two ways – for a distribution or a reattribution .
Each year, insurance companies must look at their inherited estate to see if they have more than they need to keep the fund running. If they have too much, they can choose – or in some cases be required – to pay out the extra to policyholders – this is called a distribution.
A distribution can be paid out over time or as a one-off payment. The company can use the extra money to either:
Distributions are not guaranteed – you won’t necessarily get a distribution even if you hold the policy to the end.
In rare cases, an insurance company might use the extra funds from the inherited estate to change the structure of the fund – for example, if a different structure would make the fund cheaper to manage.
If the company does this, you’ll get compensation for the part of the inherited estate you’re giving up to the insurance company. This is normally a one-off cash payment.
If your with-profits fund goes through reattribution, your insurer must write to you with information on:
- reattribution process – including dates and a summary of who is involved
- reattribution proposals – what the insurance company wants you to give up and what benefits and compensation you’ll get in return
- policyholder advocate’s views – the policyholder advocate negotiates on your behalf with the company – they will write to you about whether the firm’s proposals are in your best interest
Product providers must provide you with ‘key facts’ information that you can understand. This should cover:
If you don’t understand an investment product get independent financial advice before you buy. Read these guides: